Types of scaffolds and thier application in bone tissue engineering
Bone tissue engineering is founded on the conception of bone structure, bone mechanics and tissue creature as it aims to restore, maintain, or improve tissue functions that are defective or have been lost by different pathological conditions. Functional bone tissue-engineering exact the newly reconstruct bone to be completely integrated with the host bone. Compared with small bone defects, for successful regeneration of large bone defects is necessary implantation of bone replacement in a critical defect.
In recent years, the research has been focused on the producting of biomaterials, scaffolds, which are defined as three-dimension porous solid biomaterials designed for differnet applications. Materials have been developed for tissue engineering approaches and currently proposed types of scaffolds made of inorganic materials, organic or synthetic polymers, or of mixed materials (composite scaffolds). The concept of tissue engineering is being applied for treatment of salivary gland disorders, regeneration of craniofacial tissues, oral mucose, periodontium, dentin and dental pulp. Further, we review current patents on scaffold for bone regeneration and their classification, as well as biocompatibility of scaffolds and cells.
Preoperative and perioperative contamination and biomaterial-associated infections pose a serious problem in tissue engineering. In order to prevent and treat bone infections, antibiotics could be incorporated into scaffold and those scaffolds could be utilized for tissue engineering.