Geologica Macedonica <p>The Geologica Macedonica is an&nbsp;international, open access, peer reviewed, both&nbsp;online and printed&nbsp;journal.</p> <p>The journal focuses on the following&nbsp;areas of publication: Mineralogy, Petrology, Geochemistry, Ore deposits, Environmental geochemistry, Hydrogeology, Engineering geology, Geophysics, and other branches of the Earth Sciences.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Geological Institute at the Faculty of Natural and Technical Sciences, University "Goce De en-US Geologica Macedonica 0352-1206 Cover page Goran Tasev Copyright (c) 2023 Geologica Macedonica 2023-06-14 2023-06-14 37 1 Undercover Goran Tasev Copyright (c) 2023 Geologica Macedonica 2023-06-26 2023-06-26 37 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Goran Tasev Copyright (c) 2023 Geologica Macedonica 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 37 1 3 4 INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS Goran Tasev Copyright (c) 2023 Geologica Macedonica 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 37 1 93 94 Impressum Goran Tasev Copyright (c) 2023 Geologica Macedonica 2023-06-26 2023-06-26 37 1 SOME IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS OF POLYMETALLIC LEAD-ZINC ORE IN HAJVALIA MINE, KOSOVO <p>In this paper are presented general geological data for the polymetallic Hajvalia deposit. In particular, we have presented the scientific results regarding the chemical and mineralogical composition of sulfur mineralizations from the Hajvalia deposit. The distribution of the main metals used during the mining activity in this deposit has been studied with special emphasis. From the microscopic description of the mineral samples in the Hajvalia deposit, the following mineral compositions result: sphalerite, galena, pyrite, chalcopyrite, marcasite, arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite, tenanntite, as well as non-metallic minerals. The geochemical associations indicate the strong connection of Pb with Zn and Ag, and less with Cd and Cu. There is another association of Sb with Cd in antagonism with Cu, and an association of Bi with Cu in antagonism with As. Electron probe analysis shows that galena is quite pure with sporadic high content of Ag (up to 100 ppm). The Fe content in the sphalerite is quite homogeneous and varies from 9 to 11.5%, or 0.18 Fe atoms in the crystallochemical formula. As is known, the Fe content in sphalerite depends on the temperature of the mineral formation and, in some cases, can be used as a geothermometer. The main characteristic of galenites is their "purity", with a very high content of Pb. Ag stands out among the other elements, as does the presence of Hg, more Sb than Bi. The characteristic is the presence of Te and Se in isomorphism with S, always with a predominance of Te. In contrast to galena, the contents of Ag as well as Se and Te are lower while it is found more often in Bi than Sb.</p> Bedri Durmishaj Sylejman Hyseni Albert Hyseni Copyright (c) 2023 Geologica Macedonica 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 37 1 5 14 10.46763/GEOL23371005d MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL METHODS IN DETERMINING THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS IN SOILS (KUMANOVO REGION, NORTH MACEDONIA) <p>The results of the distribution of various chemical elements in soil samples from the region of Kumanovo, North Macedonia, are presented. In order to determine the occurrence of chemical elements, soil samples were collected from a total of 51 locations. At each location, soil samples were collected from two layers, topsoil (0–5 cm) and subsoil (20–30 cm), in an area of 5×5 km2. The soil samples were analyzed for 5 elements using two instru-mental methods: inductively coupled plasma – atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) for 17 macroelements (Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, V, and Zn) and inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for 38 trace elements (Ag, As, Be, Bi, Br, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Dy, Er, Eu, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Ho, In, La, Lu, Mo, Nb, Nd, Pr, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Tb, Ti, Tm, W, Y, Yb, and Zr). Factor analysis was applied to analyze the factors affecting the linear combination variables grouped under the same factor. Spatial distribution maps for each factor as well as distribution maps for the analyzed elements were obtained by universal kriging interpolation. It was found that the distribution of most elements follows the lithology of the studied area, except for some elements (As, Pb, and Zn) whose higher contents were found in some specific parts of sub-areas, which is due to the current and past mining activities in the region.</p> Trajče Stafilov Robert Šajn Suzana Veličkovski-Simonović Claudiu Tănăselia Copyright (c) 2023 Geologica Macedonica 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 37 1 15 36 10.46763/GEOL23371015s MIDDLE MIOCENE VOLCANISM IN ČITAKLIJA LOCALITY OF VARDAR ZONE, NORTH MACEDONIA <p>This paper presents the results of the investigations of volcanic rocks of Middle Miocene age in the central parts of the Varadar zone for the first time. The volcanic rocks that appear in the Čitakliјa locality, according to their petrological and mineralogical characteristics, represent basic igneous rocks and they are transitional rocks between phonotephrites and high potassium shoshonites. The geochemical distribution of trace elements and elements from the group of rare earths (REE), as well as isotopes of 87Sr/86Sr (0.708348) and isotope values of 143Nd/144Nd (0.512319) indicate the fact that the magmatic sources of these rocks can be located in the border region between the upper mantle and the lower part of the continental crust.</p> Ivan Boev Jordan Stefkov Copyright (c) 2023 Geologica Macedonica 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 37 1 37 48 10.46763/GEOL23371037b MICROMINE CALCULATIONS OF ORE RESERVES IN THE BOROV DOL PORPHYRY COPPER DEPOSIT, REPUBLIC OF NORTH MACEDONIA <p>The calculations of ore reserves in the Borov Dol deposit were mainly carried out with the support of the AutoCAD software package, and those results received official confirmation in the Republic of North Macedonia. The latest calculation using MICROMINE provides a wider range of use of source data from detailed geological surveys and rapid correlation between metals and associated elements in the deposit. The MICROMINE procedure for the calculation of ore reserves in the Borov Dol deposit consists of several stages starting from: creation of new project and related data base (Excel and Micromine), Micromine database validation process, building and creating wireframe, creation of the particular block model as well as calculation of ore reserves by MICROMINE software package. The obtained results are highly correlative and compatible with the same obtained through the method of vertical parallel profiles calculated using the AutoCAD software package (difference 1.21%).</p> Zlatko Peltekovski Dalibor Serafimovski Goran Tasev Todor Serafimovski Copyright (c) 2023 Geologica Macedonica 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 37 1 49 63 10.46763/GEOL23371049p MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF HEMATITE FROM ALINCI, REPUBLIC OF NORTH MACEDONIA <p>In this paper preliminary mineralogical characterization of hematite from Alinci is presented. Several crystals of hematite were collected for research. The straight-forward identification of the studied mineral sam-ples was enabled by optical microscope, SEM-EDS, ICP-MS and XRPD methods. The use of these methods showed that they are very useful methods for rapid mineral analysis contributing important analytical information. With these methods was established that the investigated mineral is hematite. Hematite crystals occur in the syenites. The size of the crystals is up to 2 cm. Crystals of hematite included small idiomorphic to hypidiomorphic crystals of rutile and ilmenite. Idiomorphic to hypidiomorphic crystals of ilmenite are corroded, relictized and separated as a solid break-down solution in a homogeneous FeO–Fe2O hematite mass. Twinned idiomorphic aggregate of ilmenite partially cata-clased into a homogeneous Fe-oxide mass also appear. Relict and corroded hypidiomorphic to allotriomorphic forms of rutile appear in a compact and homogeneous Fe-oxide hematite mass. EDS analyses on samples from Alinci show that hematite matrix contains from 1.59 to 5.89 % of Ti, whereas the rutile domains may contain from 1.15 to 1.50% of Fe.</p> Tena Šijakova-Ivanova Blažo Boev Copyright (c) 2023 Geologica Macedonica 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 37 1 65 73 10.46763/GEOL23371065shi FOSSIL FLORA FROM PALEOGENE SEDIMENTS OF THE SERTA LOCALITY IN THE TIKVEŠ BASIN, REPUBLIC OF NORTH MACEDONIA <p>The Tikveš Paleogene basin is located in the central part of the territory of Macedonia and belongs to the central part of the Vardar zone. The flora collected in the sandstone-clay sediments from the lower flysch litho-zone from the Serta locality (Tikveš basin) has been recorded and described for the first time in Macedonia. One species from the fossil flora has been identified as Equisetum parlatorii. These new findings provide information on the past and present distribution and history of Equisetum and exemplify the importance of biogeographic and evolutionary processes in the geological past. As one of the reasons for the reduction in the size of today's Equisetum from the recent vegetation, the significant climatic changes that were the result of the Himalayan orogeny during the Late Miocene are assumed.</p> Lazar Ǵorgiev Violeta Stojanova Goše Petrov Violeta Stefanova Copyright (c) 2023 Geologica Macedonica 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 37 1 75 83 10.46763/GEOL23371075gj THE IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATION ON MINERAL RAW MATERIALS FOR MORE SECURE AND ENJOYABLE TOMORROW <p>Mineral raw materials represent the basis for our everyday goods, e.g. food, cosmetics, clothing, medicine, mobile phones, electrical appliances, vehicles, construction materials, fertilizers, jewellery, etc. Furthermore, mineral raw materials are essential for new solutions for modern infrastructure and technologies and are indispensable for reaching the Green Deal goals of a climate-neutral society by 2050. In fact, the more ambitious climate targets are, the more minerals are needed for clean energy transition. Since the mineral consumption in general is rising, there is a need to educate society, especially children, on these topics. School curriculums often lack these topics, in particular while addressing recycling and circular economy. The RISBriefcase project, with its non-conventional teaching tools, is applying the holistic approach on this matter by teaching children about mineral properties and their uses, critical raw materials, circular economy approaches and use of secondary raw materials, sustainable mining, gender equality and a variety of career opportunities in mining sector.</p> Lidia Gullón Corral Santiago Rosado Calderón Luis Jordá Bordehore Kim Mezga Copyright (c) 2023 Geologica Macedonica 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 37 1 85 92 10.46763/GEOL23371085gc