Geologica Macedonica <p>The Geologica Macedonica is an&nbsp;international, open access, peer reviewed, both&nbsp;online and printed&nbsp;journal.</p> <p>The journal focuses on the following&nbsp;areas of publication: Mineralogy, Petrology, Geochemistry, Ore deposits, Environmental geochemistry, Hydrogeology, Engineering geology, Geophysics, and other branches of the Earth Sciences.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Geological Institute at the Faculty of Natural and Technical Sciences, University "Goce De en-US Geologica Macedonica 0352-1206 Undercover Goran Tasev Copyright (c) 2024 Geologica Macedonica 2024-06-19 2024-06-19 38 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Goran Tasev Copyright (c) 2024 Geologica Macedonica 2024-06-19 2024-06-19 38 1 Impressum Goran Tasev Copyright (c) 2024 Geologica Macedonica 2024-06-19 2024-06-19 38 1 INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS Goran Tasev Copyright (c) 2024 Geologica Macedonica 2024-07-02 2024-07-02 38 1 79 80 AGE OF THE VOLCANOCLASTIC SEDIMENTARY ROCKS OF THE VITAČEVO VOLCANIC PLATEAU (KOŽUF MOUNTAIN), NORTH MACEDONIA <p>The paper presents the results of the petrological, geochemical and isotopic investigations of the age of the volcanoclastic sedimentary rocks from the Vitačevo volcanic plateau. The volcanoclastic sedimentary rocks overlie the Upper Pliocene lacustrine sediments of the Tikveš basin and occur at an elevation of about 450 meters above sea level through the upper parts of the lacustrine sediments which are represented by clays and a small horizon of limestones. The volcanoclastic sediments are represented by lacustrine tuffs in which there are rounded pieces of strat-ified volcanic rocks, which by their character represent intermediate rocks from the group of latites and trachytes. The isotopic age of these rocks is 5.8 million years and corresponds to the Lower Pliocene.</p> Ivan Boev Tena Šijakova Ivanova Copyright (c) 2024 Geologica Macedonica 2024-06-19 2024-06-19 38 1 5 14 APPLICATION OF 3D POINT CLOUD DATA FOR CUT SLOPE MONITORING <p>This paper discusses the monitoring of slope instability during the construction of an expressway. As a basis, appropriate geological and engineering-geological investigations were carried out, supported by the appli-cation of practical sensing and analysis techniques, including drone-based imaging. The main goal is to present an example of the detection and monitoring of slope movements using a 3D point cloud obtained from the low-cost, remote, and precise SfM (Structure from Motion) technique, and appropriate software. The analyzed area represents a small part of a slope cut on the A2 Expressway Kriva Palanka-Stracin, in the Republic of Macedonia, which is under construction. The slope cut is excavated in albite-epidote-chlorite schists. In geological terms, it was found that this part of the cut has favorable conditions for the occurrence of instability. Four different point cloud sets were analyzed from four different surveys conducted over a total of five months, both before and after the occurrence of the instability. Multitemporal geomorphic changes in the unstable area were identified by comparing the SfM-derived point clouds in pairs. 3D distances were estimated with the multiscale model-to-model cloud comparison for each pair of point clouds. The results show that the displacements on the slope range up to 70 cm. Also, the five-month observation period shows that the instability is still active. Additional geometrical features that enable easier visualization of changes in the terrain were utilized. The obtained results show that these procedures for the detection and monitoring of displacements of unstable terrains can be used as a regular technique for such purposes. The advantages are many, including swiftness, high detail of prospecting, and the possibility of determining very small movements.</p> Igor Ivanovski Nataša Nedelkovska Igor Peševski Goše Petrov Milorad Jovanovski Toni Nikolovski Copyright (c) 2024 Geologica Macedonica 2024-06-19 2024-06-19 38 1 15 30 SOME IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS OF POLYMETALLIC LEAD-ZINC ORE IN THE BADOVC MINERAL DEPOSIT, KOSOVO <p>In this paper, we have presented the scientific results of the chemical and mineralogical composition of sulphides mineralization at the Badovc mine. In the study, 20 samples were taken and the distribution of the metal content (Pb, Zn, Ag, Bi, Cd, Cu, As, and Sb) in the Badovc deposit was analyzed. Microscopic description of the smooth mineralogical section at the Badovc deposit has resulted in this mineral composition: sphalerite, pyrite, galena, magnetite, and non-metallic minerals. Statistical and correlative analyses, factor weights, and microscopic studies were performed. According to the correlative analysis, the results show the following geochemical relationships: Pb-Ag-Bi; Cu-Cd, while data for geochemical associations, according to another method known as factorial analysis, resulted in Pb-Ag-(Bi-Sb) and Cd-Cu. The Fe content of sphalerite ranges from 6 to 13%, or 0.16 Fe atoms in the crystal-chemical formula. In galena, apart from the very high content of Pb, the absence of Ag stands out among other elements. It contains more Sb than Bi. As a conclusion, in this study we can distinguish two generations, one with the predominance of "pyrite-sphalerite-magnetite-galena" and the other composed mainly of non-metallic minerals, "pyrite-marcasite" formed at low temperatures and acidic pH.</p> Bedri Durmishaj Sylejman Hyseni Copyright (c) 2024 Geologica Macedonica 2024-06-19 2024-06-19 38 1 31 38 POSSIBLE INDUSTRIAL USE OF PHOSPHATE WASTES AS A PROMISING ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTION (TEBESSA, ALGERIA) <p>Algeria is a country with a highly varied structural and geological context, which has given rise to a wealth of diversified mineral resources (phosphates, base metals, precious metals, etc.). Mining activities have generated a significant volume of economically valueless mining waste. These waste materials can pose environmental risks depending on their condition, composition, and storage methods. In this study, we studied mine tailings from the Djebel Onk phosphate deposit, while carrying out a complete mineralogical characterization including granulometric, chemical and microscopic analyses, as well as heavy metal, X-ray diffraction, and infrared analyses. We investigated two types of mining waste: overbur-den waste and operating residues (selectivity waste) and proposed specific valorization methods for each type. The operating residues (selectivity waste) have economic potential due to their high P2O5 content. Therefore, we propose a valorization method for this type of waste through various treatment approaches such as calcination, washing, flotation, and gravity separation. For the overburden waste, we are proposing to use it as an additive in cement manufacturing processes since it contains commonly elements found in limestone and clay, as well as in additives used in cement production such blast furnace slag and pozzolana (CaO, MgO, SiO2, etc.). However, these materials do not contain P2O5.</p> Sara Imane Zeghina Walid Khelifi Aissa Benselhoub Mouhamad Bounouala Wahida Kherfane Nadiia Dovbash Stefano Bellucci Copyright (c) 2024 Geologica Macedonica 2024-06-19 2024-06-19 38 1 39 52 GEOCHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY OF LEAD-ZINC MINE TAILINGS FROM THE ARTANA LANDFILL IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOSOVO <p>The aim of this work was to identify and characterize the chemical elements in the samples of flotation tailings from the Pb-Zn mine in the Artana landfill, Republic of Kosovo. A total of 38 tailings samples were analyzed for their geochemical composition using: inductively coupled plasma – atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), as well as for their mineralogical composition using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). The geochemical data show that the content of most elements is in the following range: iron 5.8 – 31.9 %, calcium 0.69 – 13.4%, aluminium 0.08 – 1.98%, potassium 0.11 – 1.34%, lead 0.26 – 1.75%, and zinc 0.03 – 1.89%. The semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRPD) analysis shows the information for the most common minerals with their average content: pyrite 37.38%, basanite 25.28%, anhydrite 18.62% and quartz 16.93%. The data obtained from the collected samples with different instrumental techniques (ICP-AES and SEM-EDX) show a good correlation for the content of the following metals: Fe, Ca, Al, K and Pb.</p> Musaj Paçarizi Epir Qeriqi Berat Sinani Krste Tašev Arianit Reka Trajče Stafilov Copyright (c) 2024 Geologica Macedonica 2024-06-19 2024-06-19 38 1 53 64 SEASONAL MONITORING OF RADON AND RADIUM IN “HEALING WATER” FROM THE SMRDLIVA VODA LOCALITY, REPUBLIC OF NORTH MACEDONIA <p>Our current study focused on seasonal measurements of radon and radium in drinking water from the public water fountain known as Smrdliva Voda, which is believed to help with certain health problems in humans. Results of the radon in water measurements, for all 4 seasons, ranged from 3.94 up to 7.15 Bq l<sup>–1</sup>. Obtained results for the radium in water, for all 4 seasons as well, ranged from 0.25 up to 0.53 Bq l<sup>–1</sup>. Both, radon and radium measurements, in water samples from this certain fountain have shown values below the strictest standards given by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and World Health Organization (WHO), respectively. The committed effective dose for the population consuming the water directly from the fountain or as self-bottled waters from the Smrdliva Voda area was estimated using the concentration of <sup>222</sup>Rn and <sup>226</sup>Ra in water samples, ranges from 40.51 μSv y–1 to 75.81 μSv y–1, which once again for all 4 seasons is below than the WHO recommended values of maximum 100 μSv y–1.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Goran Tasev Lazar Gjorgiev Blažo Boev Copyright (c) 2024 Geologica Macedonica 2024-06-19 2024-06-19 38 1 65 78