PALIMPSEST / ПАЛИМПСЕСТ <p><em>Palimpsest</em> is an international journal for linguistic, literary and cultural research founded at the Faculty of Philology in Stip in 2016. It is published electronically twice a year, the first issue in May and the second one in November.<br>The journal publishes papers in the area of linguistics, literary science, teaching methodology and culturology. In addition, there is a section reserved for reviews of books, monographs, and other publications in the sphere of philology and culturology. The international journal <em>Palimpsest </em>publishes papers in the following languages: Macedonian, English, Russian, German, Italian, French and Turkish.<br><em>All papers</em> are double-blind peer-reviewed by two independent reviewers prior to being accepted for publication.</p> Goce Delcev University, Faculty of Philology, Stip, Republic of Macedonia en-US PALIMPSEST / ПАЛИМПСЕСТ 2545-398X FOREWORD <p>I am pleased to announce that this issue includes 25 papers written in various languages by researchers from various countries. The articles belong to the categories of Language, Literature, Culture, Teaching Methodology and Book Reviews. As a member of the editorial team, I would like to thank the many authors who have contributed to this issue: Fevzudina Saračević, Liljana Mitkovska, Milica Bogdanović, Sanja M. Maglov, Igor Rižnar, Armand Faganel, Kadri Krasniqi, Besarta Krasniqi, Ergys Prifti, Doris Sava, Marija Stojanoska, Violeta Janusheva, Marija Leontik, Аleksandra Gecovska, Antony Hoyte-West, Luisa Emanuele, Dejan Malčić, Tunay Karakök, Ranko Mladenoski, Slavcho Koviloski, Marijana Gjorgjieva, Melek Nuredini, Osman Emin, Ekaterina Namicheva-Todorovska, Petar Namichev, Nurettin Cintemir, Gürkan Moralı, Brisida Sefa, Brikena Xhaferi, Vesna Prodanovska-Poposka, Marija Todorova, Vesna Mojsova-Chepishevska and Marija Grkova-Beader.</p> Oliver Herbst Copyright (c) 2023 PALIMPSEST / ПАЛИМПСЕСТ 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 8 15 11 12 INTERACTIVE DISCOURSE IN KONESKI’S AND LUNT’S GRAMMARS: READER ENGAGEMENT <p>In this study we compare at discourse level two grammars of the Macedonian language: one by Blaže Koneski (1952, 1967), written in Macedonian, and the other by Horace Lunt (1952), written in English. We focus on personal reference and how readers are introduced and guided through the material in the two texts. We examine the predicates (and pronouns) which imply collectivity (including the author and the audience) compared to those that convey the author’s voice and those that bring third persons into the discussion in order to determine their frequency, form and range of function in the two texts. The main aim is to examine how the authors engage the potential readers and interact with them. For the analysis, we use Hyland’s model for interaction in academic discourse (Hyland, 2005), which we adapt to the Macedonian language. The first observations suggest that Koneski’s text is more interactive than Lunt’s, which follows the tradition of more objective expression. Detailed analysis will tell us which features of the discourse are characteristic of the authors and how they reflect the practise of scholarly style at the time.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>academic writing; discourse analysis; interaction; inclusive we</em>.</p> Fevzudina Saračević Liljana Mitkovska Copyright (c) 2023 PALIMPSEST / ПАЛИМПСЕСТ 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 8 15 15 26 10.46763/PALIM23815015s CONCEPTUAL METAPHORS IN ECONOMIC DISCOURSE OF SERBIAN AND BRITISH NEWSPAPER ARTICLES <p>This paper explores conceptual metaphors in the realisation of the word <em>economy</em> in Serbian and English economic newspaper articles. The aim is to identify all conceptual metaphors that describe the word <em>economy</em> in both corpora, determine their similarities and differences on a cognitive and linguistic level, and show values ​​attributed to the word <em>economy</em> on a pragmatic level. Our research has shown that the word <em>economy</em> is metaphorically conceptualised mostly as a LIVING ORGANISM, OBJECT, MECHANICAL PROCESS, CONTAINER, VERTICAL MOVEMENT and BUILDING in both corpora. The results of the analysis have proved that Serbian and English ​​show great similarities regarding linguistic expressions and their conceptual metaphors that describe the word <em>economy</em> due to the fact that they are based on universal bodily experience. However, since the process of the word meaning construction is dynamic and inseparable from the culture in which it originates, we have found certain differences that are reflected in different linguistic expressions, different conceptual metaphors and different aspects of the word <em>economy</em> that are emphasised.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>cognitive linguistics; conceptual metaphor; economy; economic discourse; English; Serbian</em>.</p> Milica Bogdanović Copyright (c) 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 8 15 27 37 10.46763/PALIM23815027b THE ROLE OF CONJUCTION IN THE COHESION OF ABSTRACTS WRITTEN IN ENGLISH AND SERBIAN <p>Cohesive devices are used to form ties between adjacent parts of the text. Owing to the short form of abstracts, particular parts of their structure can be highlighted using conjuncts as cohesive elements. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to study what kind of conjuncts are used by authors from different disciplines, aiming to determine the most common forms and functions as well as their place in the rhetorical macrostructure of the abstract. The corpus consists of 100 abstracts published in journals, namely 25 social science and 25 mechanical engineering abstracts in English and Serbian. Overall, the English authors guide their readers more often through the text by using conjuncts in comparison with their colleagues writing in Serbian. Additive conjuncts prevail in both parts of the English corpus, signifying a range of specific meanings. Whereas adversatives in the social science abstracts in English mainly serve to identify a research niche, in the engineering abstracts these forms are present in methodology, the same as temporal conjuncts. Considering the structural realization of causatives, English examples include mostly single-word adverbials, while almost all of these forms in Serbian are prepositional phrases with referential elements pointing backwards to the previous text. These results are relevant given the fact English is the medium of international and regional academic publications. This is why cultural and discipline specific aspects of writing should be taken into account and integrated into teaching and learning at universities.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>cohesion; conjunction; academic writing; rhetorical macrostructure; abstract</em>.</p> Sanja M. Maglov Copyright (c) 2023 PALIMPSEST / ПАЛИМПСЕСТ 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 8 15 39 49 10.46763/PALIM23815039m THE DISCOURSE OF MISSION STATEMENTS OF SOME SLOVENIAN AND AUSTRIAN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS <p>This article is about the language of mission statements of a sample of Slovenian and Austrian higher education institutions in the field of business and economics. We analysed the content of these statements by using WordSmith tools, a suite of programmes for identifying key words in each text, generating word lists in frequency order, and/or studying certain words in context. First, we searched the Internet and saved mission statements of all Slovenian and Austrian business and economics higher education institutions (HEIs) that had such a document in English. For our research, we first created two corpuses (one for the Austrian HEIs and one for the Slovenian HEIs) in plain text format. After that we used WordList to create two-word lists and used Concord to see how the most frequently used words in those two lists are used in the context. We analysed and interpreted the results by highlighting the main characteristics of the discourse used in the sample texts, as well as pinpointing the main differences and similarities.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>concordance; HEIs; keywords; mission statement; WordSmith tools; word frequencies</em>.</p> Igor Rižnar Armand Faganel Copyright (c) 2023 PALIMPSEST / ПАЛИМПСЕСТ 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 8 15 51 60 10.46763/PALIM23815051r PHRASEOLOGY AS A TRANSLATION PROBLEM AMONG EFL UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN KOSOVO <p>The demand for clear and accurate translation either for business, educational or culturally adoptable purposes is increasing every day. The above demand is affected considerably by the translation of a set of or fixed expressions such as idioms, phrasal verbs and other types of multi-word lexical units or in other words called ‘Phraseology’. Therefore, phraseology translation is an important skill or a technique for any English as a Foreign Language (EFL) university students when translating from source language into target one or vice versa, which also means that an EFL student (either as a translator or interpreter) must also understand not only the economical, and political, but also the cultural differences between two cultures or parties in order to create a smooth and transparent communication between them. Since phraseology translation is considered as a difficult skill or technique to be equipped with, in order to develop or improve EFL students’ phraseology translation technique, it is the universities or faculties duty to use and adapt various programs or subjects as well as find a way to implement them and assist the teaching of the phraseology translation process. The objective of this study is to find out whether phraseology translation is considered a translation problem among the EFL university students in Kosovo, and how do they cope or deal with the phenomena when they are encountered with. The results of the study revealed that despite almost all students of both universities consider themselves as good or confident translator/interpreter, but when it came to translating phraseology, they lacked knowledge or techniques and needed improvements especially in regard to idioms and sayings. The study also provides advice and recommendations for universities and new generations of EFL university students who would like to become skilful translators or interpreters and at the same time compete effectively in this demanding globalized market.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Phraseology; translation; EFL students; idioms and collocations</em>.</p> Kadri Krasniqi Besarta Krasniqi Copyright (c) 2023 PALIMPSEST / ПАЛИМПСЕСТ 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 8 15 61 73 10.46763/PALIM23815061k DEVELOPMENT OF THE PASSIVE VOICE IN GERMAN AND ALBANIAN <p>This article presents various aspects of the historical development of the passive voice in German and Albanian. The passive voice is a grammatical category, which is an important part of grammar in both languages. The passive voice helps the speaker to express himself skillfully or confidential. In order to better understand today's passive structures, it is helpful to gain insight into the historical development of such structures. In German, this representation begins since Gothic and then with Old High German and Middle High German. In Albanian, on the other hand, we can only rely on the book of Buzuku (1555), which constitutes the first written official document of written Albanian. Corresponding examples illustrate the stages of development of the passive voice in both languages. They have been translated into today's German or Albanian to make it easier for the reader to understand the content. The summary for each stage of development of the languages is given at the end of each presentation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>passive voice; development; historical; verbs; tense; passive sentences; transformation</em>.</p> Ergys Prifti Copyright (c) 2023 PALIMPSEST / ПАЛИМПСЕСТ 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 8 15 75 83 10.46763/PALIM23815075p ROMANIAN GERMAN AS A STANDARD VARIETY FROM A HISTORICAL AND CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVE <p>The Germans in Romania are not an ethnically uniform population, but different language communities. As a result of the massive emigration of Romanian Germans after the collapse of the communist dictatorship in 1989, the language situation has changed considerably. The article starts from the special status of German in Romania, which has been the supra-regional lingua franca of historical German language communities and currently of a dwindling population, in order to shed light on lexical peculiarities of Romanian German as a standard variety, which today is increasingly used by Romanians or Hungarians who have acquired German at schools where German is the language of instruction. Starting from the role of identity-forming institutions (church, school system, press and literature) for the preservation of the language, the current status of German in public language use is also outlined.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Romanian German; standard variety; lexical features; Romanian German language communities; current language situation; language maintenance</em>.</p> Doris Sava Copyright (c) 2023 PALIMPSEST / ПАЛИМПСЕСТ 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 8 15 85 94 10.46763/PALIM23815085s MACEDONIAN GENDER SENSITIVE LANGUAGE <p>The gender sensitive language (GSL), among other things, especially refers to the nouns denoting professions/roles which are used in the masculine gender form, including persons from male and female sex. The present paper analyzes gender matters content, and mainly the GSL to obtain a general picture of the Macedonia’s maturity to join the extended GSL debate. The sample consists of large number of Internet sources related to gender to­pics and GSL, which are a result of searching on Google according to key word, and the ana­­lysis rests upon the qualitative content analysis and the interpretative-inductive method. The research results demonstrate that there are countless content regarding the strengthening of the equality between women and men, but there is a lack of content with respect to deepening the gender fairness through the language. The results show that there is spo­ra­dic use of the feminine nouns designating professions/roles as well, which indicates a positive di­rection with reference to GSL in Macedonia.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Macedonian</em> <em>GSL</em><em>;</em><em> nouns</em><em>;</em><em> profession</em><em>;</em><em> role</em>.</p> Marija Stojanoska Violeta Janusheva Copyright (c) 2023 PALIMPSEST / ПАЛИМПСЕСТ 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 8 15 95 105 10.46763/PALIM23815095s WORD GROUPS WITH A CONJUNCTION IN TURKISH LANGUAGE AND THEIR EQUIVALENCE IN MACEDONIAN LANGUAGE <p>A word group with a conjuction (bağlama grubu) is formed from a noun words and from a conjunction. Ex. siyah ve beyaz/ black and white. This paper deals word group with a conjunction in Turkish language and their equivalence in Macedonian language.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>word group; conjunction</em><em>; </em><em>Turkish language; Macedonian language</em>.</p> Marija Leontik Copyright (c) 2023 PALIMPSEST / ПАЛИМПСЕСТ 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 8 15 107 118 10.46763/PALIM23815107l ETYMOLOGY OF THE PHYTONYME BASIL <p>The etymological analysis of the name of the medicinal plant Ocimum basilicum in this article discusses about etymological origin of the selected scientific Slavic name of plant meanwhile the data for our research was gathered from different literature sources. We include an outline of the etymology of the scientific Latin, Greek and Slavic names - its purpose, challenges that it faces and possible solutions for overcoming them. Since the purpose of the thesis was to find the origin of the phytonym, we made our effort to the language, from which the oldest documented words - names originate. In the explanation part we state also motives for naming and therefore meaning origins of the plant name, and analysis has been made. Every explanation is enriched by cultural-historical, botanical, linguistic and other backgrounds essential for its understanding.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>e</em><em>tymo</em><em>logy; phytonym; medicinal plant</em>.</p> Аleksandra Gecovska Copyright (c) 2023 PALIMPSEST / ПАЛИМПСЕСТ 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 8 15 119 128 10.46763/PALIM23815119g TRUE TO LIFE? SOME REMARKS ON A DUTCH TRANSLATION OF JERZY KOSINSKI’S THE PAINTED BIRD <p>Almost six decades after it was first published, the novel <em>The Painted Bird</em>, by the Polish-American author Jerzy Kosinski, continues to attract interest and controversy. The book was widely translated and an analytical comparison of its translation into over a dozen languages was recently published. Noting the absence of Dutch from this analysis, the present contribution aims to provide an overview of <em>De geverfde vogel</em>, the Dutch translation of <em>The Painted Bird</em>. In the first instance, information regarding the circumstances and development of Kosinski’s original novel are outlined. This is subsequently complemented by an overview of the Dutch language as well as the context behind the translation of the book, before relevant aspects relating to the original and the Dutch translation are compared and contrasted.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Jerzy Kosinski; The Painted Bird; De geverfde vogel; Holocaust literature; literary translation; Oscar Timmers</em>.</p> Antony Hoyte-West Copyright (c) 2023 PALIMPSEST / ПАЛИМПСЕСТ 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 8 15 131 138 10.46763/PALIM23815131hw «MEMORY IS THE STONE OF SISYPHUS. WHO AM I? AHMED OR AMEDEO?». AMARA LAKHOUS: THE SELF-FRAGMENTATION <p>Amara Lakhous, an author of Algerian origin, represents a singular character of transcultural writing in Italian language, as expression of numerous dimensions, linguistic choices and dislocations, which create a dynamic, contaminated and Creole linguistic-cultural identity. This essay aims to analyze, on a narrative, hermeneutic, semiotic, and linguistic-stylistic level, <em>Scontro</em><em> di civiltà per un ascensore a Piazza Vittorio</em>, a noir unique in its genre, in that it is a self-translation of a previous version written in Arabic, which shows, through its multifocality, the identity fragmentation. The intention is to bring out the identity image of the migrant writer, apparently unaltered, but in reality deeply split and poised between past and present, memory and oblivion, truth and fiction. A state of disorientation and alienation that finds a sort of composition in the so-called "howls", spaces of reflection and reconstitution of emotions that the author gives to Ahmed/Amedeo, a character who represents an intense interior conflict, typical of those who cannot find their own place and dimension in the world.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Creolization; Displacement; Identity; Memory; Transculturalism</em>.</p> Luisa Emanuele Copyright (c) 2023 PALIMPSEST / ПАЛИМПСЕСТ 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 8 15 139 149 10.46763/PALIM23815139e POSTMODERN VISIONS OF ROME IN THE GREAT BEAUTY, SUBURRA AND THEY CALL ME JEEG <p>While it is fair to say that in the last couple of decades the Italian cinema has not reached the same artistic peaks as in some earlier decades of the twentieth century (the Golden Age, the great movie authors of the Sixties and the Seventies, etc.), there have been movies and filmmakers that have managed to be artistically valid and commercially successful in recent years as well. <em>The Great Beauty</em> (2013) by Paolo Sorrentino, <em>Suburra</em> (2015) by Stefano Sollima and <em>They Call Me Jeeg</em> (2015) by Gabriele Mainetti have all taken inspiration from the tradition they belong to (also citing some external sources as well) to bring to fruition their unique artistic visions. What they all have in common is the way they portray the city of Rome, as the ultimate movie location that is inseparable from the human characters in the movies. These movies vary the same motif in specific ways, each staying true to the tradition(s) they are mostly inspired by. The paper will show their major similarities and differences in that regard, with specific attention given to their primary genre and their artistic inclinations towards postmodernism. Their postmodern visions of the city of Rome are particular precisely because of their differences, yet the way they incorporate mythical elements and realism is what ties them together while they try to treat that same city with respect and dignity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>contemporary Italian cinema; postmodernism; homage</em>.</p> Dejan Malčić Copyright (c) 2023 PALIMPSEST / ПАЛИМПСЕСТ 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 8 15 151 159 10.46763/PALIM23815151m HAJI BEKTASHI VELI’S VELÂYETNÂME AS A LITERARY SOURCE ABOUT MEDIEVAL ANATOLIA <p>After the Battle of Talas, which took place in the middle of the VIIIth century, the process of accepting Islam by the Turks began. The Turks, who had stood side by side in this war with the members of this new religion, which they had the opportunity to meet on various occasions before, have now entered the process of gradually accepting this religion after recognizing it. With this acceptance, Turks will succeed in raising many important figures in the field of thought, as in many other fields. Mahmud al-Kashgari, Yusuf Khass Hajib, Ahmad bin Mahmud Yukenaki and Khoja Akhmet Yassawi are a few of them. These personalities lived before the Turks came to Anatolia. However, their influence continued to increase after the arrival of the Turks in Anatolia at the beginning of the Xth century. Scientific and intellectual activities that started in Central Asia entered a new phase with the conquest of Anatolia. This phase is the one in which the Turkish understanding of religion is shaped and a new interpretation of the religion of Islam is formed. Personalities such as Mawlānā, Yunus Emre, Ak̲h̲ī Ewrān and Haji Bektashi Veli who grew up in this period struggled to spread this new religion both among Türker and in the Anatolian geography. The works they produced, the dervish lodges, zawiyas and sufi centers they established, and Haji Bektashi Veli, one of these personalities who tried to continue these struggles, and his Velâyetnâme, which is considered to be his most important literary work, are discussed in this study. The work in question; When the content is evaluated in the context of the events and dates it deals with, it is an important literary and historical resource for medieval Anatolia.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Anatolia; Haji Bektashi Veli; Source; Middle Ages; Velâyetnâme</em>.</p> Tunay Karakök Copyright (c) 2023 PALIMPSEST / ПАЛИМПСЕСТ 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 8 15 161 170 10.46763/PALIM23815161k THE MAN'S FALL FROM THE SACRED TO THE CHTHONIC IN THE LATEST SHORT STORIES BY VENKO ANDONOVSKI <p>This paper presents an analysis and interpretation of the essential narrative specifics in the latest (third) collection of short stories by Venko Andonovski, titled “Taming of the Bitch” and subtitled “Stories about Madness”, published in 2018 by the publishing house “Tri”. In the analysis and interpretation of the short stories we follow the moral decline of the modern man, but also of man in general, which is the dominant theme in this collection. This moral decline is demonstrated successively in the three narrative cycles (“Frescoes”, “Icons”, “Caricatures and Grotesques”), starting from the sacred (in the first two cycles of the collection) and through the profane to the chthonic (in the third cycle of short stories). In the conclusion of the paper, it is emphasized that the primary message in the collection of short stories “Taming of the Bitch” by Venko Andonovski - which is a narrative presentation of all forms of madness whose negative reflections result in moral decline and dehumanization of man - is demonstrated very skillfully both through the form and through the content of the short stories.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Venko Andonovski; short stories; man’s moral decline; madness; frescoes; icons; grotesques</em>.</p> Ranko Mladenoski Copyright (c) 2023 PALIMPSEST / ПАЛИМПСЕСТ 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 8 15 171 180 10.46763/PALIM23815171m CONTEMPORARY BOGOMILAN OR FOLK-BOGOMILAN AUTHORS <p>In this study we refer to the phenomenon of piety and its influence on literature and philosophy by this day. Starting from the term “folk-Bogomilan” poetry, first used by Kocho Racin, we present observations about the possibilities of emergence, even if spontaneous and not formed completely, of contemporary folk-Bogomilan authors, i.e. contemporary folk-Bogomilan literature. Hence, we terminologically upgrade Racin's position on folk-Bogomilan poetry with folk-Bogomilan or contemporary Bogomilan authors who have a distinctly social creative dimension. Such authors, for example, apart from Racin, are August Cesarec, Miroslav Krleza, Hristo Botev, Ivan Cankar, etc. These were authors who were “a thorn in the side of all conservative people”, who brought a “new spirit, art and life” into their works and who found themselves in conflict with the social systems of the time, i.e.&nbsp; the rule of “being Bogomil meant living outside the law, without the protection of any earthly authorities they were surrounded with” applied to them. In their works we should look for a reference to the old times, to denying and fighting against the existing social, religious and economic systems, to a demand for social justice, to dualism, etc.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Kocho Racin; Pop Bogomil; Bogomilism; contemporary Bogomilan authors; folk-Bogomilan authors</em>.</p> Slavcho Koviloski Copyright (c) 2023 PALIMPSEST / ПАЛИМПСЕСТ 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 8 15 181 191 10.46763/PALIM23815181k THE INFLUENCES OF THE CRISIS IN THE „NOVELLE“ BY JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE <p>This paper contains the analysis and observation of the text „Novelle“ by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. According to the author, the most important is to be aware that novels are a literary genre that is required to influence the human soul. Besides, he himself defines the novel as an „unheard-of event “. In the organized and cultivated fictional world in „Novelle“, there is a fast spreading fire, that sways the old societal context and brings the safety of the world into question. Because the terrifying event challenges the humanity in mankind, we will look at its effect on the developmental processes of the characters in this novel. There will be a presentation of the ambivalent meaning of the term „crisis “, as it has a negative-destructive and a positive-rescuing function. This paper will explore the impact of the destructive force of the fire towards the characters, as well as the impact of the miraculous and unheard-of event. That way, we will hopefully get closer to answering the question: „What does it mean to be human? “, while also honoring Goethe’s biggest wish, to get to know mankind.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>crisis; Johann Wolfgang von Goethe; </em><em>„</em><em>Novelle</em><em>“</em><em>; fire; faith</em>.</p> Marijana Gjorgjieva Copyright (c) 2023 PALIMPSEST / ПАЛИМПСЕСТ 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 8 15 193 200 10.46763/PALIM23815193gj THE BALKANS AS A UNİFYİNG ELEMENT FOR MEHMET AKİF ERSOY AND YAHYA KEMAL BEYATLI <p>Mehmet Âkif Ersoy and Yahya Kemal Beyatlı are known as the sons of the Balkan lands. Although Mehmet ‘Âkif Ersoy was born and raised in Istanbul, his father was born and raised in the Suşitsa region of Kosovo and when he was 27 years old he moved to Istanbul for education. Yahya Kemal Beyatlı was born in Skopje and lived the happiest days of his childhood in his hometown. In this study, we will analyze the two leading names of Turkish literature within the framework of the Balkan theme, due to the fact that they are from the Balkans. The Balkans will be discussed from the point of view of the importance of the writers, both the loss of the Balkans and their private lives. In this study, starting from this common point of Mehmet Akif Ersoy and Yahya Kemal Bayatlı, we will attempt to determine the effects of the Balkans on them as a geographical uniting element for the two great poets.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Homeland; Balkans; Ottoman; Kosovo; Skopje; literature; poetry</em>.</p> Melek Nuredini Copyright (c) 2023 PALIMPSEST / ПАЛИМПСЕСТ 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 8 15 201 211 10.46763/PALIM23815201n REVIEW OF PILLOWMAN THEATER <p>The subject of this research is Pillow Man, a 2003 play written by Martin McDonagh. The work will be analyzed in terms of both, content and form during the study. Postdrama, tragedy and its parts, Jung's four archetypes, Foucault's prison theory, in-yer-face&nbsp;theatre, and Martin McDonagh's biography will be discussed. The study's goal will be to discover which currents affect today's theater, to determine whether old theater movements are still useful, and to bring to light how the theater has evolved in comparison to the past. Furthermore, how currents and modern morality affect theater plays will be examined in terms of Pillow Man, and the study will achieve its goal.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>In-yer-face theatre; Postdramatic; Pillow Man; Foucault</em>.</p> Osman Emin Copyright (c) 2023 PALIMPSEST / ПАЛИМПСЕСТ 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 8 15 213 221 10.46763/PALIM23815213e RUSSIAN ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS FROM THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY IN SKOPJE AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON URBAN DEVELOPMENT <p>In the years after the First World War, in the newly established Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, the need to rebuild the destroyed architectural fund in the cities was necessary. The intensification of construction activities to restore the city from the consequences of the war, as well as the initiation of the social colonization policy of the state, which led to a rapid growth of the population in Skopje, led to bold investments and construction ventures. This increased the rise of the economic power of a certain part of the population, as one of the most social elements that provoked the need for the engagement of a large number of educated professionals, architects and engineers, who were generally lacking in the Kingdom, and especially in Skopje. Builders with academic qualifications were necessary for the creation of the new visual and functional aesthetics, expressed through academicism, immediately after 1918, because educated designers and authorized engineers were lacking in Skopje at that time. In the production of residential architecture in Skopje in the period from 1922-1941, the architects and engineers, emigrants from Russia, who settled in Skopje during 1919-1921, left a special mark on the city.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Russian architects</em><em>;</em><em> academism</em><em>;</em><em> urban development</em><em>;</em><em> residential architecture</em><em>;</em><em> builders</em>.</p> Ekaterina Namicheva-Todorovska Petar Namichev Copyright (c) 2023 PALIMPSEST / ПАЛИМПСЕСТ 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 8 15 225 233 10.46763/PALIM23815225nt NEW TOOLS FOR ETANDEM IN LANGUAGE LEARNING: A THEORETICAL STUDY <p>The study aims to provide theoretical knowledge about current websites and internet applications that can be used for eTandem language learning, which emerged with widespread internet use in the 90s and has continued to renew itself over time. This paper provides an introduction of the eTandem language learning, discussing the structure of eTandem, potential benefits, and findings from studies on eTandem's role in collaborative learning activities. &nbsp;Further on the websites, social media platforms, and applications that can be used as new tools for eTandem as well as the research focus are introduced too. In conclusion it is stated that some of these applications are directly created for eTandem language learning. In contrast, others have been adopted over time for language learning through the opportunities they provide. Also, it is highlighted that there is a need for more research studies in order to identify difficulties that partners may encounter in adapting eTandem language learning to changing conditions, along with the given recommendations. It is believed that this theoretical study will contribute to the field of language learning and teaching by reaching a broad audience with current tools that can be used for eTandem language learning, which adapts to time and conditions and focuses on the comfort of partners.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>language learning; eTandem; websites; applications</em>.</p> Nurettin Cintemir Gürkan Moralı Copyright (c) 2023 PALIMPSEST / ПАЛИМПСЕСТ 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 8 15 237 247 10.46763/PALIM23815237c ALBANIAN TEACHERS’ AND LEARNERS’ PERSPECTIVES AND EXPERIENCES ON THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH <p>This study explores the implementation of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom in Albania, from the perspectives of both teachers and learners. It also investigates the challenges and benefits of implementing CLT in the Albanian context, and to examine how both teachers and learners experience this teaching methodology. The study uses a mixed-methods approach, including surveys and interviews with EFL teachers and learners in Albania. Teachers report that CLT helps to engage learners, promote communicative competence, and foster learner autonomy, while learners report that CLT enhances their speaking and listening skills, increases their confidence, and facilitates real-life communication. Overall, this study contributes to the growing body of research on the implementation of CLT in EFL contexts and provides valuable insights into the experiences of teachers and learners in Albania. The findings suggest that although there are challenges to implementing CLT in Albania, such as limited resources and traditional teaching approaches, both teachers and learners recognize the benefits of using CLT in the classroom. The study has implications for EFL teaching and learning in Albania and other similar contexts, and provides useful recommendations for promoting effective CLT implementation. The study highlights the need for further professional development opportunities for EFL teachers in Albania to effectively implement CLT in their classrooms.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Communicative Language Teaching; English as a Foreign Language; Perspective; Experiences; Teachers and Learners</em>.</p> Brisida Sefa Brikena Xhaferi Copyright (c) 2023 PALIMPSEST / ПАЛИМПСЕСТ 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 8 15 249 259 10.46763/PALIM23815249s AFFECTIVE VARIABLES IN THE FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING PROCESS <p>Emotions significantly affect the process of foreign language teaching and learning. Some of them have a positive impact and facilitate the learning and the ability to memorize, and others have a negative impact and ‘block’ or debilitate the learning process. Native language proficiency, language aptitude, attitudes and beliefs, affective variables, demographic features (age, gender), etc., are already well-established influential factors related to foreign language learning. The authors of this paper actually attempt to scrutinize the affective variables i.e. anxiety, motivation and self-esteem among university students-learners of English and Spanish as foreign languages. The paper presents testing of the Stephen Krashen’s Affective Filter Hypothesis by surveying a group of students in order to determine the presence of anxiety, to evaluate the level of motivation and self-esteem, thus confirming or refuting Krashen’s Affective Filter Hypothesis. According to the obtained results of the aforementioned analysis of both groups of FL students, it is well established that the Affective Filter Hypothesis is partially confirmed.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Affective variables; Foreign language learning; Affective Filter Hypothesis</em>.</p> Vesna Prodanovska-Poposka Marija Todorova Copyright (c) 2023 PALIMPSEST / ПАЛИМПСЕСТ 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 8 15 261 271 10.46763/PALIM23815261pp (HOW) TO GET HOME FINALLY? <p>The paper refers to the book “Long journey home” (2022) by Vesna Kozhinkova, which resulted from her research for her doctoral dissertation on the topic: “The Aegean Theme in Contemporary Macedonian Prose through the Modalities of Domesticity”. With this book, Kozhinkova explored a whole thematic complex in Macedonian literature, recognizable by the fact that it treats the subject of forcibly exiled Macedonians from Aegean Macedonia during the Civil War in Greece. The paper presents the overall content of the book's chapters and comments on the issues raised in it, as well as the author's approach and conclusions. Kozhinkova's “Long Journey Home” represents an extremely big research in the field of Macedonian philology and cultural science, more precisely in the field of contemporary Macedonian literature and culture, which contributes to the affirmation and reference of Macedonian literary-theoretical scientific thought. This book represents a thorough research that will be the basis on which some future researchers will build on, supplement and debate.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Vesna Kozhinkova; contemporary Macedonian prose; Aegean Macedonia; domesticity; exile; identity; otherness</em>.</p> Vesna Mojsova Chepishevska Copyright (c) 2023 PALIMPSEST / ПАЛИМПСЕСТ 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 8 15 275 280 10.46763/PALIM23815275mch VALUABLE AND USEFUL TEXTBOOK ON ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODOLOGY <p>The textbook &nbsp;“English Language Teaching: Key Issues” by Dr. Nina Daskalovska, professor at the Faculty of Philology – Goce Delchev University in Stip was published in 2022. This capital work &nbsp;covers the contents studied in the course &nbsp;Methodology of English Language Teaching 3. According to the study program, this course &nbsp;is mandatory for the students of the Department of English Language and Literature &nbsp;Teaching program in the seventh semester. The contents of the English language teaching methodology are presented in twelve chapters. In this paper, we will go through the pages of the book in detail and give a short &nbsp;review of each chapter separately.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Textbook; Methodology of English language teaching; key issues; students; preparation of future teachers</em>.</p> Marija Grkova-Beader Copyright (c) 2023 PALIMPSEST / ПАЛИМПСЕСТ 2023-06-13 2023-06-13 8 15 281 286 10.46763/PALIM23815281gb