Lead distribution in soil due to lithogenic and anthropogenic factors in the Bregalnica river basin
AbstractThe distribution of lead, which in higher content represents hazard to the environment, causescertain unwanted consequences on human health. Therefore, the environmental monitoring not only for the lithogenicbut also for the anthropogenic distribution leads to determination of the main hot spots in the environment. Bregalnicariver basin in the Republic of Macedonia was selected as a study area with the presence of three potential emissionsources: lead and zinc mines (“Zletovo” and “Sasa” mines) and copper mine (Bučim mine). The lead contents inalluvial and automorphic soil range from 4.4 to 46000 mg kg-1. The most enriched subarea with lead in the Bregalnicariver basin is the Zletovo–Kamenica region. The average Pb content in these subareas is 3100 mg kg–1. Despite theanthropogenic activities in the above mentioned mines, enriched Pb deposition in soil is mainly correlated with thedominant geological formations, such as Neogene pyroclastites and vulcanites and Proterozoic gneisse and shales.
Artiola J. F., Pepper I., Brussean L.: Environmental Monitoring and Characterization, Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, 2004.
Athar M., Vohora, S.: Heavy Metals and Environment, New Age International Publishers, New Delhi, 1995.
Balabanova, B., Stafilov, T., Šajn, R., Bačeva, K.: Spatial distribution and characterization of some toxic metals and lithogenic elements in topsoil and subsoil from copper mine environs. International Journal of Environmental Protection, 3(9), 1–9 (2013).
Box G. E. P. & Cox D. R.: An analysis of transformations. Journal of the Royal Society, Series B (Methodological), 26 (2), 211–252 (1964).
Brown, R. W., Gonzalez, C., Hooper, M. J., Bayat, A. C., Fornerette, A. M., McBride, T. J.: Soil lead (Pb) in residential transects through Lubbock, Texas: A preliminary assessment. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 30, 541–547 (2008).
Dumurdžanov N., Serafimovski T., Burchfiel B. C.: Evolution of the Neogene-Pleistocene basins of Macedonia. Geological Society of America, Digital Map and Chart Series 1, 2004.
S., Adriano C. D.: Environmental impacts of metal ore Dudka mining and processing: A review. Journal of Environmental Quality, 26, 590–602 (1997).
Filippelli, G. M.; Laidlaw, M. A. S.; Latimer, J. C.; Raftis, R.: Urban lead poisoning and medical geology: An unfinished story. GSA Today 15, 4–11 (2005).
ISO 14869-1:2001, Soil quality-Dissolution for the determination of total element content-Part 1: Dissolution with hydrofluoric and perchloric acids. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001.
Laidlaw, M. A. S., Filippelli, G. M.: Resuspension of urban soils as a persistent source of lead poisoning in children: A review and new directions. Applied Geochemistry, 23, 2021–2039 (2008).
Lazarevski, A.: Climate in Macedonia, Kultura, Skopje, (1993) (in Macedonian).
Mielke, H. W. & Reagan, P.L.: Soil as an important pathway of human lead exposure. Environ. Health Perspect. 106, 217–229 (1998).
McGrath, D., Zhang, C., Carton, O. T.: Geostatistical analyses and hazard assessment on soil lead in Silvermines Area, Ireland. Environmental Pollution, 127, 239–248 (2004).
Rakićević Т., Dumurdžanov N., Petkovski М.: Basic Geological Map of SFRJ, sheet Štip, M 1:100,000 (map & interpreter), Federal Geological Survey, Beograd, 1968.
Reimann C., Filzmoser P., Fabian K., Hron K., Birke M., Demetriades A., Dinelli E., Ladenberger A.: The concept of compositional data analysis in practice – Total major element concentrations in agricultural and grazing land soils of Europe. Science of the Total Environment, 426, 196–210 (2012).
Salminen R., Batista M.J., Bidovec M., Demetriades A., De Vivo B., De Vos W., Duris M., Gilucis A., Gregorauskiene V., Halamic J., Heitzmann P., Jordan G., Klaver G., Klein P., Lis J., Locutura J., Marsina K., Mazreku A., O’Connor P. J., Olsson S. Å., Ottesen R. T., Petersell V., Plant J. A., Reeder S., Salpeteur I., Sandström H., Siewers U., Steenfelt A., Tarvainen T.: Geochemical Atlas of Europe, Part 1, Background Information, Methodology and Maps, Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo, 2005.
Salomons W.: Environmental impact of metals derived from mining activities: Processes, predictions, preventions. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 44, 5–23 (1995).
Serafimovski T. & Aleksandrov M.: Lead and zinc deposits and occurrences in the Republic of Macedonia. Special edition of the Faculty of Mining and Geology, Štip, Republic of Macedonia, 1995.
Serafimovski, T., Dolenec, T., Tasev, G.: New data concerning the major ore minerals and sulphosalts from the Pb-Zn Zletovo mine, Macedonia. RMZ – Materials and Geoenvironment, 52, 535–548 (2006).
Siegel F. R.: Environmental Geochemistry of Potentially Toxic Metals. Springer, Berlin, Heidedelberg, 2002.
Solt M. J., Deocampo D. M., Norris M.: Spatial distribution of lead in Sacramento, California, USA Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 12, 3174–3187 (2015).
Stafilov T., Balabanova B., Šajn R., Bačeva K., Boev B.: Geochemical atlas of Radoviš and the environs and the distribution of heavy metals in the air. Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Skopje, 2010a.
Stafilov T., Šajn R., Pančevski Z., Boev B., Frontasyeva M. V., Strelkova L. P.: Heavy metal contamination of surface soils around a lead and zinc smelter in the Republic of Macedonia, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 175, 896–914 (2010b).
Stafilov, T., Balabanova, B., Šajn R.: Geochemical atlas of the region of the Bregalnica river basin. Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Skopje, 2014.
Van het Bolcher M., Van der Gon D. H., Groenenberg B. J., Ilyin I., Reinds G. J., Slootweg J., Travnikov O., Visschedijk A., De Vries W.: Heavy Metal Emissions, Depositions, Critical Loads and Exceedances in Europe. Hettelingh J. P. & Sliggers J. (Eds.), National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, The Netherland, 2006.
VanLoon G. W., Duffy S. J.: Environmental Chemistry: A Global Perspective, Oxford University Press, New York, 2000.