BIOACCUMULATION AND TRANSLOCATION FACTOR OF HEAVY METALS IN THE PLANTS LINARIA SP., MORICANDIA SP. AND VIOLA LUTEA HUDS FROM THE ALŠAR LOCALITY – REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA
This work was conducted in order to assess the distribution of metal and metalloids in soil and plants (Linaria sp., Moricandia sp. and Viola lutea Huds) which appears at the Alšar locality – Republic of Macedonia, as well as bioaccumulation and translocation of the metals in different parts of the plant. For this purpose, the contents of metals in soil and parts (root, tree, leaf and flowers) of the plants were digested and then analyzed by ICPMS. Obtained results showed that studied soil and plants are enriched with thallium and arsenic. The contents of these elements in soil exceeded the intervention value for soils (The New Dutch list). According to New Dutch list, natural background content of Tl is 1.0 mg/kg, while interventional value is 15 mg/kg. In this work, the total Tl content in the soil from Alšar site is 561 mg/kg. The content of arsenic in unpolluted soils presented in other papers ranges from 4 to 150 mg/kg. Elevated As content, up to 732 mg/kg, is reported for Slovakian soils. Natural background content for As is 29 mg/kg, and intervention value is 55 mg/kg reported by the New Dutch list. In soil from Alšar content of As is 5376 mg/kg. Bioconcentration factor (BCF), bioaccumulation coefficient (BAC) and translocation factor (TF) also were determined. Linaria sp. has the highest TF for Tl, Rb and Cs. TF for Tl is: steam/root – 1.39, leaf/root – 7.54, and flower/root – 1.52. TF for Rb and Cs is 1.0 and 4.4 leaf/root, respectively. BAC has the highest value for Tl steam/soil – 10.19, leaf/soil – 55.45 and flower/soil – 11.16. BCF is the highest for Tl root/soil – 7.35. Moricandia sp. has TF values > 1, in leaf/root for Cr (1.44), Co (1.01), As (1.23), Ni (1.0), Rb (2.0), Cs (1.1), Ba (1.0) and Cd (1.2), flower/root for Rb (3.8), Cs (4.5), Cu (1.3) and Cd (1.7). Viola lutea Huds has TF values > 1 in steam/root for Cu (1.57), Zn (1.5), Tl (1.47), Mo (1.1), Sb (2.42) and Cd (1.3), and in leaf/root for Cr (3.04), Co (3.87), Ni (5.86), Zn (1.23), Pb (7.09), Tl (10.63), As (6.21) and Mo (4.48). Moricandia sp. and Viola lutea Huds for BAC and BCF have values < 1. Considering the BCF, BAC and TF values for Linaria sp., this plant for Tl, Cs and Rb possessed the characteristics of hyperaccumulator. Because Linaria sp., Moricandia sp. and Viola lutea Huds from Alšar locality have high TF values, could be useful for phytostabilization of contaminated soils.