Implant-prosthetic therapy failure in smoker and nonsmoker patients
Introduction: Implant-prosthetic therapy has predictable success, and the complications are associated with a lot of factors. Smoking cigarettes is reason for different oral diseases, bone loss, loss of soft tissue and teeth, appearance of periimplantitis and implant loss. The corellation of smoking and implant-prosthetic therapy failure was examined in the clinical study. Materials and method: Fifty patients with FDP on 61 implants in frontal and molar region were investigated. They were divided in two groups: smokers and nonsmokers. Thirty four patients were smokers, and sixteen didn’t smoke cigarettes in the last two years. Criteria data for the success of the therapy were mobility of the implant, pain, peri-implant bone loss higher than 1.5 mm, absence of technical complications and function and aesthetics appeal. Control checkups were made after six months, one and two years. Patients had questionnaires, clinical examination and X-ray. Results: There is a statistically significant difference between smokers and nonsmokers in the failure rates of dental implants. During first year 0,5 mm of bone was lost around eleven implants, and 0,05 mm next years.Total seven implants failed, five in smoker group at the beginning of the first year, and 2 in nonsmoker group during second year. Conclusion: Results showed that smoking habit can increase the risk of early implants loss two times more often in smokers. For some complications like periimplantitis, local factors have greater influence. Smoking does not increase the risk of late implant loss, but the implants at patients with smoking habit, in correlation with several different local risk factors, is contraindicated. Early complications are results of smoking, while quality and quantity of surrounding bone are responsible for late complications.The results from the investigation, also give informations for proper treatment planning, and patient education for quiting their harmfull habit.
Implants, therapy failure, smoking, periimplantitis