• Tatjana Ulanska Faculty of Philology, Goce Delchev University, Shtip, Macedonia
  • Dragana Kuzmanovska Faculty of Philology, Goce Delchev University, Shtip, Macedonia
  • Snezana Kirova Faculty of Philology, Goce Delchev University, Shtip, Macedonia
  • Biljana Ivanova Faculty of Philology, Goce Delchev University, Shtip, Macedonia
Keywords: Macedonian language, English language, German language, kinship terms, semantic features


This paper describes the semantic features of kinship terms in Macedonian, English and German and attempts to make a complete analysis in these languages. The paper compares the semantics of kinship terms from a perspective of a comparative analysis of Macedonian, on one hand with English and German on the other, as they belong to different language groups. These terms have proven to have specific particularities which differ in system structure. The comparison between these three languages will show both similarities and differences in the lexical fields of kinship terms, especially in Macedonian to English and German. Kinship terms have been a subject of interest from various perspectives and analyses since these terms show unique national features. Additionally, they have been discussed and researched from a cultural aspect as well, since they seem to convey information about the cultural life of the people who speak a certain language. Therefore, kinship terms can also be seen as a social symbol. The paper provides an insight into the comparative analysis presenting similarities and differences in the lexical fields of kinship terms and, finally, draws a few conclusions and insights concerning their cultural peculiarities.


Е. Stoevska-Denčova, (2009). „Imenuvanje na rodninskite odnosi vo makedonskite dijalekti od slovenski I balkanistički aspekt “, Institut za makedonski jazik “Krste Misirkov”, Skopje [Naming of kinship relations in the Macedonian dialects from the Slavic and Balkanist aspect] Institute for Macedonian Language“Krste Misirkov” , Skopje.

Stefanovski, Lj, (2007). English Lexicology – coursebook Nikolovska, V., (2013). Što izgubivme niz vremeto (na primeri od jazikot) “Jazikot naš denešen” Zbornik na trudovi od XVII naučen sobir, Institiut za makedonski jazik “Krstte Misirkov”, Skopje [What we have lost over time (on language examples). “Our Language Today” Proceedings of the XVII Scientific Meeting], Institute for Macedonian Language “Krste Misirkov” – Skopje

Petreska, V., (2005). Sistem na srodstvo kaj Makedoncite, Institut za folklor “Marko Cepenkov” Skopje,

Posebni Izdanija, kn. 59, Skopje. [System of kinship among the Macedonians], Institute of Folklore “Marko Cepenkov” -Skopje, Special editions, book 59, Skopje.

Jones, D. (2010). Human kinship, from conceptual structure to grammar. Behavioral and Brain Sciences

Kemp, C. & Regier, T. (2012). Kinship categories across languages reflect general communicative principles.Science

Kroeber, A., (1936) Kinship and History. American Anthropologist

Morgan, Lewis Henry (1870) Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family. Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, vol. 17. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.

Stone, L. (2000) Kinship and gender: An introduction. Westview.

Strier, K. B. (2004) Patrilineal kinship and primate behavior. In: Kinship and behavior in primates, ed. B. Chapais & C. M. Berman. Oxford University Press.

Trautmann, Thomas R. (1981) Dravidian Kinship. (Cambridge Studies in Social Anthropology, vol. 36.)

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Trautmann, T. R. (1987) Lewis Henry Morgan and the invention of kinship. University of California.

Trautmann, T. R. & Barnes, R. H. (1998) “Dravidian,” “Iroquois,” and “Crow-Omaha” in North American perspective. In: Transformations of kinship, ed. M. Godelier, T. R. Trautmann & F. E. Tjon Sie Fat. Smithsonian Institution Press.

Wierzbicka A. (1992). Semantics, culture, and cognition. New York: Oxford University Press